Buwayhid of Iraq & Iran

Gold Dinar


In field with floral ornaments at 12:00, 9:00, 6:00 and 3:00: la ilah illa/Allah/wahda la sharik lahu/ al-Qa’im bi-amr Allah/shahanshah al-mu’azzam/malik al-muluk “no deity other than the One God, He has no associate, al-Qa’im bi-amr Allah, the great shahanshah, king of kings”

Inner margin anticlockwise from 1:00: bism Allah duriba hadha’l-dinar bi-Madinat al-Salam sana sitt wa thalathin wa arba‘ mi’a “in the name of God this dinar was struck in Madinat al-Salam year six and thirty and four hundred”

Outer margin anticlockwise from 12:00: lillah al-amr min qabl wa min bad wa yawma‘idhin yafrahu al- mu’minin bi-nasr Allah “the command is God’s, past and future, and on that day the faithful will rejoice in the victory granted by God” Surah XXX (al-Rum) v. 4


In field within beaded circle with five-petalled daisy at 1:00 and floral ornaments at 9:00 and 3:00: lillah/Muhammad rasul Allah/salla Allah ‘alayhi wa ‘alihi/Muhi din Allah/wa Ghiyath ‘Ubayd Allah/wa Qasim khalifat Allah/abu-Kalijar “for God, Muhammad is the messenger of God, God’s blessings be upon him and his family, sustainer of the Faith of God and defender of the humble servants of God and Partner of God’s Caliph, abu-Kalijar”

In margin anticlockwise from 12:00: Muhammad rasul Allah arsalahu bi’l-huda wa-din al-haqq li-yuzhirahu ‘ala al-din kullihi wa law kariha al-mushrikun “Muhammad is the messenger of God who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists may detest it” Surah IX (al-Tauba) v. 33

Abu-Kalijar bin Sultan al-dawla abu Shuja‘, the last important Buwayhid ruler, lived an adventurous life from his earliest youth. At the age of twelve he took control of al-Ahwaz in Khuzistan. He then won a dispute with abu’l-Fawaris, ruler of Kirman, and took control of that province and al-Basra. After the death of al-Mukram, Governor of Oman, he sent troops to occupy that country. He also spent years trying to claim the throne in Baghdad and almost succeeded in 428 H when he was recognised as senior amir and had coins struck bearing the title shahanshah. However, the Uqaylids, preferring a weaker ruler, reinstated Abu-Kalijar’s uncle, Jalal al-dawla. Abu-Kalijar finally became sole Buwayhid ruler in 436 when this coin was struck. However, he remained in continuous conflict with the leaders of other emerging powers and members of his own family. Abu Kalijar died suddenly in 440/1048 while attempting to hold back the Great Saljuqs’ advance into Kirman and Fars. He left a legacy of some of the most beautiful dinars and dirhams in the whole Islamic series, which were adorned with more elaborate and hyperbolic titles than had up to then been used by any Muslim ruler.

Buwayhid of Iraq & Iran

Ruler‘Imad al-din abu-Kalijar bin Sultan al-dawla
MintMadinat al-Salam (“City of Peace”, Baghdad)
Date436 H (1035-1036 CE)